Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc <p>Research Journal of Islamic civilization and culture (JICC), was started in June-2018. It<br>is a peer reviewed journal and is published biannually by the Department of Islamic/Pakistan<br>Studies, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar-Pakistan.</p> Ahbab Trust en-US Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture The Provisions of False Testimony from the Perspective of Islamic Law http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/57 <p>Witnesses play an important role in providing justice to the aggrieved party.<br>However, there is always a possibility that the witnesses may be false.<br>Falsehood in testimony is a serious problem of the society and every legal<br>system attempts to prevent falsehood by providing certain provisions that aim<br>to curb falsehood. In this connection, the Pakistani courts have addressed this<br>issue in various cases whereby the courts passed harsh remarks about the<br>false witnesses and ordered for certain actions against them. This issue is also<br>discussed in Islamic law with extensive detail. We find that the Muslim jurists<br>have discussed different aspects of this problem. For instance, what is the way<br>of verifying the reliability of witnesses? What is the provision or punishment<br>for those who commit falsehood in testimony? Are they punished for this act?<br>Once falsehood is committed, is there any remedy for it, or it disqualifies from<br>giving testimony forever? What if a decision is taken on the basis of false<br>testimony?<br>In this article, we discuss this issue from both Islamic and conventional law<br>perspective and highlight the main points in the context of the current judicial<br>approach towards this issue.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 Allama ibn-e-kathir was a great muhaddis, mufassir and historian of his age. His tafseer tafseer ibn-e-kathir http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/58 <p>The last book written according to the point of view on seerat-unnabvi(saw) is of Allama ibn-e-kathir’s seerat-un-nabvi. Allama ibn-e-kathir<br>was a great muhaddis, mufassir and historian of his age. His tafseer “tafseer<br>ibn-e-kathir” has a prominent place in the knowledge of tafseer. Likewise in<br>history he has a fomous book al-bidaya-wl-nihaya in fact he wrote a book as<br>seerah al nabviyyah consisting of four volumes then ge converted and<br>completed in a whole book of history that is known as al-bidaya-wlnihayh.(the beginning and the end)۔When Allama started compiling his book<br>on seerat, he has all Origin of the early age. He collected in his book all those<br>Ahadees and Rivayas that he considered authentic and reliable.<br>In the last he narrated prophet(saw) habits and manners. He was a great<br>scholar and faqeeh his book has a lot about fiqhiyyat-e-seerat , having a large<br>scope.There are a number of places in his book where he has discovered<br>orders and lesson from various ahadees that is proof of his being expert in<br>tafseer,hadees, fiqah and seerah.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 A Study of the Jurists’ Opinions about the Conditions of Marriage http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/59 <p>Islam is a complete code of life. It throws light on every aspect of<br>human life. There is no perplexity which solution has not been given by Islam.<br>It has also discussed every piece of beliefs and ethics including human affairs<br>with each other. There is no faith comparable to Islam on the earth. Western<br>civilization and culture is at its peak. It has literally made people blind<br>followers of itself. That’s why they are producing new interpretations of Islam<br>in order to keep pace with the world. It is true that accepted wisdom is a<br>blessing but to the limits of Sharia. Otherwise it is a legacy of Shaytan (شیطان .(<br>Nikah is one of the most important and critical stage of human life. It has been<br>clearly discussed in Quran and Hadith. It is made mandatory for the<br>continuation of human life. It’s been referred as completion of human life and<br>one of the mandatory Sunna of Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم .(On the other hand, the<br>dissolution of marriage is one of the most disliked actions. However, Islam is<br>not like other religions. It has the complete course of action/laws of the<br>dissolution of marriage. Nikah, Talaq, Khula and Eela have been discussed<br>properly which are made more clear by the jurists by using Estihsan and<br>Qaiyas.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 The Old and New/Contemporary standards of the Legality Hillat-o-Hurmat of Food Items in Islamic Sharia http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/60 <p>In Islamic Shariah, generally, simplicity in halal foods is appreciated<br>and recommended and overeating, eating non-hygienic and harmful food is<br>not appreciated. The prophet May peace be upon him has set a standard and<br>criteria even in the quantity and manner of making and eating a food item by<br>setting an example through his Seerah and narration Hadith for the humanity;<br>and till the day of judgement, it will remain a standard. In order to know about<br>the Islamic rulings about the Halal and Haram food, the Sunnah of the<br>prophet May peace be upon him is mandatory; and in the light of his life and<br>commandments the old and new contemporary standards of Hillat-o-Hurmat<br>being halal or haram of a food item can be derived. Maintaining the specificity<br>of the traditional old foods and the modern day technologically manufactured<br>foods, as being approved or disapproved, in the light of The Quran and<br>Sunnah is a bit difficult task; for example, modern day chocolates and gelatinoriented food products with different chemicals and emulsifying agents need to<br>be judged according to the injunctions of the Islamic Sharia. The main<br>purpose and objective of the current research is to find out the Islamic<br>standards/universals about the food items as for as their Hillat-o-Hurmat is<br>concerned; in other words what are the Islamic standards about a particular<br>food item as defined in Sharia and how the eating habits can be changed in the<br>light of the Islamic rulings. The research will also discuss those standards<br>that make it easy to differentiate between the legal and illegal food in an<br>Islamic perspective. The study concludes with the basic premise that the<br>answer of all the above questions is in simple food and simple living, as it is<br>evident through the life of the prophet May peace be upon him.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 An Analysis of Married Life in the Holy Quran http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/61 <p>In Islam, marriage has been declared as the way of the Prophet peace<br>be upon him. The Holy Quran has motivated the believer to do nikah /<br>marriage in various forms. Islam has declared marriage a basic conditions for<br>a pious society and has termed it an obligation in normal circumstances.<br>According to Quran, the purpose of marriage is spiritual and ethical piety and<br>safety. Quran has declared nikah as a hisn which means a (safe) castle. The<br>objective of a castle is protection and a wife and husband are the protectors of<br>each others. If the purpose of protection is not attained, the purpose of nikah<br>can not be attained. There are many verses in the Quran which have expressly<br>stated the objective of nikah. One of the objectives of nikah is the<br>establishment of a divine relationship between the spouses. There is the<br>relationship of love and mercy between them which lasts till the end of their<br>lives.<br>Islam is a complete code of life which provides guidance for all walks<br>of life. Like other systems, it has provided a comprehensive code for family life<br>which is free from imbalance and is in perfect harmony with human nature.<br>The Islamic system of marriage is organized consisting of rules and<br>regulations about marriage, khul’a, lia’an etc. This system is the basis of<br>social collectivity and if it is properly organized, society is usually safe from<br>moral disturbance and corruption.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 Life History Of Meer Anis And His Elegy http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/62 <p>An elegy is considered to be one of the most significant arts and the<br>most prominent themes which relates to the phenomenon of death in poetry and<br>specially in pre Islamic poetry. Human death is an inevitable because it has<br>engaged the intellectual minds and thoughts of philosophers, literary writers<br>and poets. Elegy was actually a kind of exorcism and pray for a departed soul<br>who would get comfort, peace and tranquility in his grave. But later on, this<br>concept was developed and converted in to weeping, lamenting and mourning<br>over grief. Beside this, good qualities of the dead person were recalled so all<br>these concepts were significantly proved to be the definition of elegy.<br>This article is related to the poet’s life history Meer Anis and his<br>elegy, who is very famous poet of lamentation in Urdu Poetry and he belongs<br>to 19th Century. During that era , there were famous poets .One of them was<br>Meer Anis who added many things and took it to the peak and climax.<br>Most of the elegies in Urdu poetry initiated from the incident of “KARBALA”<br>and specified to the martyr of Hazrat Hussain (R.A).<br>This article is based on the importance of elegy in literature and the<br>life history of Meer Anees and his poetry .In his elegy, Miraculous description<br>and appearance of his personality ,thoughts of elegy, “Rajaz”and “Razam”<br>were discussed.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 Istighfaar in the context of Quran. http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/63 <p>Quran is the book of guidance for humanity. It is full with mercy of Allah and<br>His compassion towards his creation. In this regard, the word extensively used<br>is Ghafara غفر which is in fact a symbol of love and forgiveness of Al-mighty<br>Allah for his worshipers. The word غفر has been used in Quran in maximum<br>chapters of the Holy Quran, but it doesn’t carry a single meaning all the way<br>in all of the Quran. Rather it includes and encompasses other meanings of<br>forgiveness in different contexts which needs scholarly study for elaboration.<br>This article deals with the use of the word غفرand all its derivatives and their<br>meanings in the Holy Quran in the light of scholarly views of Ulamaa of<br>Language and Exegesis. Following the extensive discussion, there are the<br>results and conclusive points of the article.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 The Euthanasia Mercy killing in the Islamic Sharia http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/64 <p>Patient who is in incurable condition and experts of health are<br>disappointed from his healing or a child who is birthely disabled and hope is<br>not present to his treatment for away their intolerable suffering their killing<br>through medicine or other thing for emancipate they and their kinsfolk from<br>this tragedy called Euthanasia Mercy killing, it has two types first is by giving<br>medicine or killing materials active method. Second is avoid and preventing<br>from treatment passive method.<br>Above mentioned both are prohibited and unlawful in Holly Islam, if sick is<br>hopeless from life and permit to a doctor to kill him this is suicidal act and big<br>sin, and if a doctor without from the permeation of sick conduct this act this<br>is intentional killing. Holly Quran and Sunnah are appointed severe<br>punishment to killers.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 Metaphor Examples in the Al-Arbaeen Al-Navaviyah http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/65 <p>There are many books of hadith named as collection of Forty<br>Important hadith but the Al-Arbaeen Al-Navaviyah النووية األربعين is the one<br>which has drawn much attention of Ulemas throughout the ages. The book has<br>got distinction and fame among the circle of Scholars and common people for<br>its comprehensive content and remarkable expression. Its writer name is<br>Muhiyuddin yahya bin Sharf. He has been magnificent writer of the 8th<br>century.<br>This research paper is about the examples of Metaphor استعارة in<br>Arbaeen Al-navaviyah. Here we have first of all given a brief introduction of<br>the writer of Arbaeen Al-Navaviyah after which there is a summary of the<br>content of the book. Following the literal and idiomatic meaning of Metaphor,<br>I have explained Metaphor with examples from the book. There are actually<br>three main types of Metaphor found in the mentioned book, namely:<br>1. Isti’aara Tasrihiya<br>2. Isti’aara Makniya<br>3. Isti’aara Tamsiliya.<br>All these types are explained with examples taken from the book<br>Arbaeen Al Navaviyah. In the end there are the primary and secondary<br>sources of the research.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 توجيه العالمة ابن بطال وتوضيحه لرفع اإلشكال في استغفار األنبياء http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/66 <p>Prophet’s repentance and its clarification according to Allama Ibne Battal<br>Al ESTEGFAR means to ask Allah’s forgiveness of sins, and the only way of<br>this is true repentance according to Islam, being guilty by nature, human<br>beings need to turn to Allah in repentance again and again.<br>The Messenger of Allah had used to seek Allah's Pardon and had<br>turned to Him in repentance so many times a day. But why did Prophets of<br>Allah Peace be upon Them repent, even though sinless, and even though Allah<br>has forgiven them, their faults, as narrated regarding the Prophet’s struggling<br>hard to offer night prayers.<br>The Prophets of Allah were the most Allah fearing, and they know<br>Allah better than all of us do, hence they were most grateful servants of Allah,<br>and they used to strive hard to perform Allah's due right in worship, more than<br>any one else among the human beings.<br>Despite this fact, to perform Allah's due right is so difficult to<br>achieve, due to Allah's lavished favors, and the limited capability of humans.<br>Therefore the Prophets of Allah had been considering there struggle<br>for performing worship less than the required due right, and were always<br>seeking Allah's Pardon for this deficiency, and so had used to turn to Him in<br>repentance repeatedly.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 Important features of Tareekh-e-Ibne Asakir http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/67 <p>This article aims at general introduction and analysis of important features of<br>a book named:"Tareekh-e-Ibne Asakir" or the so called "tareekh-o-demashq",<br>or the history of Damascus city. The book is containing 80 volumes, and a<br>huge number of material regarding different sciences, i.e. the science of<br>Hadith, the science of Rijaal (the chain of narrators), the science of Prophet's<br>biography (Seera), and the science of history in general. As the named book is<br>that much important, and a prominent source of Hadith, we here in this article<br>are focusing on its main features regarding narrations mentioned by the<br>author.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 Fundamentalism, Extremism and Terrorism; an analysis http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/68 <p>Fundamentalism first emerged in Christianity, as a reaction to the liberal<br>interpretation of the religion by Protestantism, at renaissance period in<br>Europe. In 20th century the world saw the resurgence of Islamic world as a<br>reaction to the colonial liberal ideologies of the west. The term “extremism”<br>was coined for those who were religious and desired to take religion on the<br>cost of modernity. A tug of war started between liberal extremists and<br>religious extremists, which resulted in imposing forcefully, ones ideology on<br>his counterpart. From the lap of this mutual struggle came out “terrorism” the<br>most notorious term of the century, destroying most countries of the Muslim<br>world. This paper is an attempt, to analyze the nature of fundamentalism,<br>extremism, and terrorism in relation with religion, especially to Islam.<br>Objective of this research is to ascertain the hegemonic features of the<br>liberalism to purge the entire humanity according to their values. The work is<br>qualitative, based on descriptive analytical method; mostly, secondary sources<br>like books, news papers, research articles and online sources are utilized to<br>accomplish the work. This research article concludes that the improper<br>gauging and treatment the nature of the three terms has made the world an<br>unsafe place for living. The uncertain situation created by these obscured<br>terminology, if not handled prudently, will ruin the world.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 A Primer on Islamic Law of Insolvency . http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/69 <p>Islamic law is a complete code of life for the believers. It enjoys the features of<br>flexibility and rigidity. Although these features may seem to be contradictory,<br>they are balanced by Islamic law harmoniously. Thus, we see that the general<br>principles in Islamic law are fixed and are not subject to change. However, the<br>minor details and practical application may change with the passage of time.<br>Due to its flexibility, this law is capable of adapting itself according to the<br>changes of society. A unique aspect of Islamic law is insolvency and/or<br>bankruptcy. Although this notion is not widely discussed these days, the books<br>of fiqh are rich with a code of insolvency for individual debtors. There is a<br>complete theory underlying this code which balances the rights of debtors and<br>creditors. Thus, Islamic insolvency does not violate the right of debtor or<br>creditors. Both are given their due rights without any comprise on the rights of<br>other party. In this article, we introduce the Islamic law of insolvency briefly.<br>The purpose is to add to the academic debate on insolvency today.<br>Particularly, this chapter of fiqh is important due to the wide spread growth of<br>Islamic finance whereby instances of insolvency are observed frequently. He<br>paper is a theoretical attempt to highlight the general theory of Islamic<br>insolvency law.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 Return of loan and responsibility of Islamic government http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/70 <p>This paper presents the Islamic views on the return of loan and<br>responsibility of Islamic government. Also presents different examples of<br>issuing orders to return loans and to express values of returning loans on time<br>from Islamic history.<br>This paper also describes the teaching of the prayers related to<br>returning of loans. It explains in detail legal steps for returning of loan to<br>morally stop from nonpayment of loans. This paper discusses steps and<br>techniques to ensure return of loans and helping out helpless owed. Also the<br>responsibility of Islamic government and an Islamic society regarding helping<br>out helpless owed, deceased owed and advising relatives of the deceased owed<br>to pay back the money to those who owe it. Furthermore, it also considers the<br>conditions of getting help from Baitul Mal.<br>This paper analysis the status of the fine imposed on the delay in<br>paying back the debts and its ruling in Islamic Sharia. At the end discuss the<br>bank cards and its position in Islamic Sharia.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 Bank Patronage Factors in Dual Banking System: An Empirical Analysis in Pakistan http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/71 <p>This paper aims to find the factors customers use to patronage Islamic and<br>conventional banks in Pakistan. We statistical analysis on the primary data<br>collected from bank customers in different cities of the country. The analysis of<br>variables constitutes different aspects of customer selection criteria showing<br>that there are five over riding dimensions for Islamic and five for conventional<br>bank customers. Customers in Islamic banks consider security of money as an<br>important factor in selecting an Islamic bank while customers of conventional<br>banks regards convenience more important in selection of bank. In the same<br>manner other four factors are derived which are discussed before in this study.<br>These two factors are highly regarded by the both Islamic and conventional<br>bank customers. Second important factor by Islamic bank customers was<br>human resource while conventional bank customers are considered about<br>reliability of bank and its services.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 Mysticism, Religious Mobilization and Islamic Revivalism in British India: An Assessment of Mujahideen Movement after 1831 http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/72 <p>Mujahidin movement was a comprehensive endeavour turning mystic<br>ideologies of social reformation to open fields of confrontation against<br>the Sikhs and British invaders in India. Imprinted with the philosophy<br>of Shah Waliullah and mysticism of Shah Abdul Aziz the movement<br>worked intensively for religious revivalism in Muslim society in the<br>early nineteenth century. The mujahidin fought several wars and were,<br>in fact, in a constant war with the invader British forces. During this<br>constant situation of war, they managed to recruit men and money from<br>the British India and extended their channels to the settled areas. In the<br>independence struggle of India this movement have a very significant<br>role which is much extended and wide. This paper is an attempt to get<br>an overview of the extended struggle of the movement after the war of<br>1831 in Balakot, their relationship with the Saadath of Sithana, their<br>role in the war of independence in 1857, the war of Ambela in 1863<br>and their role in the independence struggle which culminated in the<br>partition of India.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2 Educational Services of Women at the Dawn of Islam http://ahbabtrust.org/ojs/index.php/jicc/article/view/73 <p>In the modern world a negative picture of Islam has been projected<br>regarding women basic rights as education based on Islamic restrictions on<br>Hijab which is no doubt a loose and perverted message. It is totally the other<br>way around if the true picture of Islam is looked into with an unbiased and<br>unprejudiced mind. Islam has granted an honorable status to woman in every<br>field of life. As man, woman has also been included in the commandment of<br>Quran even if masculine format of the word is used, which reflects equal<br>importance of woman in the Islamic perspectives. Thus the prophetic sayings<br>about getting education do not single out men to get knowledge and leave<br>behind women uneducated. This is the reason we find in our history a huge<br>list of women who made miracles in education and enlightened the Ummah<br>with their rich thoughts. Their valuable contribution is an everlasting candle<br>of knowledge for humanity.<br>This article deals with such several Muslim women at the dawn of<br>Islam who devoted their lives to education and made wonders in it. The article<br>will thus prove that women always have as equal contribution as men when it<br>comes to knowledge and education and that Islam has not been and can never<br>be a hindrance in all that adds to the advancement and progress of Muslim<br>society. The article is divided into the following points:<br>1) Importance of Woman Education in Islam<br>2) Education of Ummahat Ul Mu’mineen<br>3) Education of wives of Sahaba R.A<br>4) Conclusion and Suggestions<br>Key words: Women, Education, Services, Dawn of Islam.</p> Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 2