Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture <p>Research Journal of Islamic civilization and culture (JICC), was started in June-2018. It<br>is a peer reviewed journal and is published biannually by the Department of Islamic/Pakistan<br>Studies, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar-Pakistan.</p> en-US (Dr. Muneer Ahmed) (Nazir Ahmed) Sat, 18 Jul 2020 05:50:51 +0000 OJS 60 The Role of Elected Scholars on Interfaith Harmony in Pakistan - A Research Study <p><strong><em>Islam is a humanity based religion and unity plays of a vital role in it. It is not possible for a humane person to deny the importance of unity for a better society. It is the one thing that leads the nations of the world in the way of progress and prosperity. On the other hand chaos and anarchy is such a curse that makes a nation fall into the depths of disgrace. No enemy needs to fight such nation to defeat it. Their own internal conflicts and chaos is enough to dismantle them. Unfortunately this egoism and prejudice has reached its climax among the Muslims of Pakistan. We have failed ourselves in building a balanced progressive and welfare society based on two nation theory. Witnessing this situation many scholars from different schools of thoughts have tried their best towards the progress of inter-Muslim harmony and tolerance. In this regard they have highlighted the evil effects of chaos and positivity of unity. They have also brought forward such advises both in speech and written through which damage caused by sectarianism can be handled.</em></strong></p> Dr. Hafiz Ghulam Anwar Azhari , Zahoor Alam Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 17:10:50 +0000 Shariah compliant stock exchange: steps required for transformation <p><strong><em>Islamization of economy is an important part of Islamic countries’ policy nowadays. After emergence of Islamic financial institutions, the demand and need for Islamization of whole economy has increased. Current methodology for Islamization is to bring required changes in existing economic and financial system.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>This article discusses the required necessary steps for Islamization of a very important institution of an economic system – stock exchange.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>For Islamization of stock exchange six directly related steps are important to begin with. Some other direcly and indirectly related institutions may also be required to adopt these changes being part of capital market.</em></strong></p> Irshad Ahmad Ijaz Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 17:08:48 +0000 Research Analysis of Dr. Vid Parkash’s Opinion about Narashnis and the Last Prophet PBUH <p><em>Dr. Vid Prakash book is a clear arguments for the fact that Islam is a true believer and the Prophet Peace Be Upon Him, and it is equally useful for every two parties .The good news of the Prophet peace be upon him is also present in the first heavenly books, and the former Prophets also gave good news to their own Ommah. A part from this, the good news of the Prophet PBUH is also present in the holy book of Hindu. We do not have any status”. Narashans and the last messenger of Allah Peace Be Upon Him” in which he has accepted the last messenger of Muhammad peace be upon him with many arguments from the holy books of Hindu. The original book of the learned author is in Hindi. And Wasi Iqbal has written a translation in Urdu .The learned writer Dr. Vid Prakash has clearly stated his opinion about the&nbsp; Narshanas, he writes that in Hindi it is used for the messenger of Allah peace be upon him , The learned writer writes that Narshanas means that the man is praised and Muhammad peace be upon him is praised</em></p> Naseem Ullah , Dr. Zia Ullah Alazhari Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 17:07:02 +0000 Jews Claim on Masjid Aqsa; Historical and Sharῑ’ah Perspective <p><strong><em>Palestine’s issue has been one of the most vibrant issues of the Muslim Ummah thou out the Islamic history.&nbsp; It has contracted more attraction and reflection in contemporary era due to its sensitivity and global politics.&nbsp; Masjid Aqsa is considered as a scared and blessed place for Muslims due to prophets’ birth and death places, and also station of Isrā and M’erāj (A sacred journey of the Holy Prophet </em></strong><strong><em>ﷺ</em></strong><strong><em>) from Makah to Aqsa and Aqsa to heaven with Allah’s meeting of the last Prophet (</em></strong><strong><em>ﷺ</em></strong><strong><em>). Moreover, this place is equally significant for Muslims and Jews communities both for their religious claims and commitments. Jews made claim on Masjid Aqsa due to its historical and religious importance. Most interesting thing is that, where Masjid Aqsa is a blessed and sacred place as well as, it is a basic reason of conflict and dispute between Muslims and Jews since establishment of the State of Israel. Jews claim, here was temple of Suleiman (A.S) under the foundations of Masjid Aqsa and Muslims claim, it is blessed and sacred masjid which was first Qiblah of Muslims and Haram also. Historically and religiously it is right of Muslims and Jews are hurting the religious sentiments of the Muslim which is wrong and violations of the Muslims religious and human rights. This study is an effort to analyze the historical and religious arguments of Muslims and Jews about ownership of the Masjid Aqsa and presents a solution regarding Palestine issue in contemporary era. The analytical, historical and comparative approaches have been adopted in this research with qualitative approach.</em></strong></p> Dr. Riaz Ahmad Saeed , Dr. Syed Muhammad Shahid Tarmizi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 17:04:55 +0000 An Analytical Study From Islamic Perspective of the Economic and Social Conditions of Widows in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa <p><strong><em>The relatonshp of the spouse s a beautful relaton of ths unverse. The people nvolved n ths relatonshp are lke the two wheels of the vehcle. f even one of them falls short, the vehcle of lfe stops. Death s an nalenable fact, every soul has to taste t. When a woman becomes a wdow, t s very dffcult for her to lve n socety, such a woman s often faced as dsgustng and awful behavour of people. On the one hand, husband whch has the status of a shadow for a wfe, n the form of death ths shadow s taken away from her head and then she feels herself alone n ths world. And on the other, she faces dffcult stages, whch becomes extremely dffcult for a lonely and helpless woman, for example, takes care and expendture of chldren and other needs of lfe etc. There are some smlar stuatons n Khyber Pakhtunkhwa that when the economc and socal condtons of wdows n dfferent dstrcts were revewed, t was found that women are sufferng from problems and are lvng poorly. t s a tragc step that there s no one to help the wdow and helpless women. n fact, we have forgotten the slamc teachngs. Due to whch wth the passng moments, we are headed for destructon. The need s to generalze the slamc teachngs and to practce them too. The am of ths research work s to analyze the economc and socal condtons of wdows n Khyber Pakhtunkhwa n the lght of slamc teachngs.</em></strong></p> Shumaila Rafiq , Dr. Naseem Akhter Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 17:01:21 +0000 Research Review of the Tolerance of Muslims with Non-Muslims in Spain and its Impacts <p>Islamic ideology is the basis and source of Islamic state, which sets out the rights of Muslims as well as the Dhimmis. Islam teaches the tolerance and fairness to non-Muslims citizens. Islam gives the non-Muslims religious freedom. Quran says, “There is no compulsion in Faith”. Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) says, “If anyone wrongs a Mu'ahid, detracts from his rights, burdens him with more work than he is able to do, or takes something from him without his consent, I will plead for him on the Day of Resurrection”. Arab Muslims conquered Spain in 711 A.C. The Muslims defeated Christians there, while the Jews also existed there. When the Muslims (Moors) conquered this country, they behaved and treated the people here with fairness and tolerance. The tolerance of Muslims has had a profound impact on non-Muslims and the environment here. Many of non-Muslims converted to Islam with their own consent. Muslims gave them full enfranchise to worship according to their own religion; the priest did not need to hide their religious status. Muslim Spain had complete freedom of education which led to students coming from other countries for pursuit education. Non-Muslims adopted culture, living style and ways to dress of Muslims. They learned Arabic and began to read poetry in Arabic. Arabic literature translated into Hebrew and Latin by non-Muslims. In Muslim Spain there was freedom of expression. The Jewish scholar Ibn Naghrila spoke on the beliefs of Muslims under the Muslim rule in Spain.Hasdai ibn Shaprot (d.970) established a madrasa for Jews in Cordova to teach the Holy Scripture and Talmud. Katie Magnus (d.1924) says, “Like a dream in the night – Life in Spain”. Due to the tolerance of Muslims, Europeans became aware of civilization and from that time renaissance began. Muslims behaved non-Muslims with tolerance, contrary to non-Muslims, while they overcome on Muslims, wherever their attitude with Muslims is always regrettable. With the fall of the Muslim’s empire, Spain fell into the darkness of ignorance. Stanley lane-Poole (d.1931) says, “The Moors were banished, for a while the Christian Spain shone, like the Moon, with a borrowed light, then came the eclipse, and in that darkness Spain grovelled ever since”.</p> Rooh Ullah, Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 16:57:49 +0000 ANALYSIS OF THE IDEOLOGICAL ORIGINS OF ARMED STRUGGLE IN ISLAM <p><strong><em>Armed struggle is an issue of life- and -death judgments and that’s why it needs solid justification from ethical and religious principles. Defending human life and preserving the society from anarchy, disintegration and destruction sometimes waging armed struggle become necessary and a group of people or nation is compelled to do so. Now one of the important aspects in this regard is, in which circumstances the nation is allowed for an armed struggle. All of the major world religions provide guidelines in this domain from strong militancy to absolute pacifism and just war theory. Islam too acknowledges the right of defense and preserving life to human beings. This paper seeks to map out the ideological approaches to armed struggle in Islam. The important scriptures from the holy Quran, Narrations of the holy prophet are briefly introduced and the relevant verses are extracted and summarized in the light of exegesis.</em></strong></p> Sami Ud Din, Dr. Dost Muhammad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 16:54:24 +0000 Sources of completion of Proof (tmām al-ḥujjah) and Role of Promise of “Am I not (your Lord)” (Aid-e-Alast) <p><strong><em>Allah gives human being the ability to find out their Creator and Sustainer and show them the evidence to identify the facts and truth as Allah Says: We will show them Our Signs in the universe and in their own selves until it becomes clear to them that this Quran is the Truth). This article is humble effort to identify the sources and causes of Hidayah, which leads a person to believe in Allah. Is Ahd-e-Alst (Allah covenant with the souls of humans before creation </em></strong><strong><em>that I am your creator and </em></strong><strong><em>Sustainer) should be consider a source of Itmam-e-Hujjat (Completion of Proof)? This paper will present and discuss the views and arguments of different scholars and exegetes and the role of this covenant in the reward and punishment of a human being and is this mere "pledge" enough to make a man Muslim or Pagan? We will explain the&nbsp; issues&nbsp; relates to this covenant also.</em></strong></p> Farhad Ali, Dr. Rab Nawaz Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 16:33:43 +0000 The Evolution of Ottoman Architecture and its Distinct Characteristics <p><strong><em>Architecture reflects and pinpoints its nation’s progress and mindset. Ottoman Empire, which ruled over three continents, is known for its unique and magnificent architecture represented by grand mosques, seminaries and imperial palaces .The so called Ottoman Architecture was created with in the domain of the Ottoman Empire and is known for its distinct characteristics. This architecture was initially influenced by Seljuk architecture. All Ottoman Sultans had special taste for architecture .Later on, the center was shifted to the capital of the fallen Byzantine Empire, and thus got inspirations from byzantine art .The most well۔known architect of that era was Sinan who revolutionized the art of architecture. He designed almost three hundred buildings distinguished for spacious courtyards surrounded by vast gardens. In the 18<sup>th</sup> century, Ottoman Sultanate came into contact with Europe, and therefore Baroque influences came to be seen in their architecture. Hence, internal decorations became prominent in the architecture.</em></strong></p> Sana Zia , Safya Noor Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 16:31:00 +0000 Analytical Review of Noel James Coulson Book’s A History of Islamic Law <p><strong><em>The Western Orientalism movement had resulted in the creation of a large academic asset of Islamic literature. The Orientalists had struggled in two ways; by introducing and editing old Islamic manuscripts, and by commenting on the various aspects of the Prophet’s (PBUH) life and his traditions. Moreover, some Orientalists had worked on the Islamic jurisprudence, too. As&nbsp;&nbsp; Coulson, have been discussed analytical studies of Islamic jurisprudence,&nbsp; in this regard his book, “ The History of Islamic Law”, is a sorely needed book; it will substantiate a highly impactful, direly beneficial and effective book; and above all, it is a remarkably well-constructed book.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Mr. Coulson’s compact volume is a clear, comprehensive, and authoritative treatment of the genesis and history of Islamic law in theory and practice, and of the central problem of legal reform now confronting Muslim society. Islamic law, the Sharia of medieval Islam, is for Muslims and the comprehensive catalogue of God’s commands and recommendations laid down for the guidance of man… In recent times, with the wholesome adoption by Muslim countries of western legal ideas and institutions, the Sharia has seemingly been all but forsaken and abandoned… Unless the idea of a law system based on religion is to be abandoned entirely… [Coulson] points out, the task for modern Muslims, like that of their medieval predecessors, is once more to ascertain and impose the central ethical criterion norms of Islam upon the functioning’s of their society. N. J. Coulson was a chair of oriental laws at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. In this article the analytical and critical review is discussed. </em></strong></p> Dr. Muhammad Ilyas, Dr. Zainab Ameen Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 16:28:33 +0000 Research and critical study of famous chains of ibn Abbas in Hadith relating to the interpretation of the Quran <p><strong><em>Ibn Abbas has many Hadiths in Tafseer. Most of these not sahih and authentic۔There is a book of tafseer attributed to him from these hadith which is known as “Tanvir Ul miqbas&nbsp; min tafseer e Inb Abbas”.It is Called “Tafsir Ibn Abbas”.in addition to this Tabri and Al talabi have also mentioned many hadiths from Ibn Abbas. But it is not certain that all the hadiths belong to Ibn Abbas as Imam Shafi said: “There is nothing more than a hundred authentic hadiths from Ibn Abbas in the Tafseer.” For this reason we need to recognize their becoming sahih, their weakness and their fabrication for separating some of the sahaih hadiths from these numerous hadiths. In this&nbsp; research article the chains of those hadiths are investigated&nbsp; and explained&nbsp; their credibility.</em></strong></p> Aziz Ahmad , Dr. Zia Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 16:25:33 +0000 The punishment of a Muslim blasphemer (In the context of Ibne-Abidin's opinion <p><strong><em>Ibne-Abidin</em></strong><strong><em> (1198–1252 AH / 1783–1836</em></strong><strong><em> CE</em></strong><strong><em>) is one of the most prominent Jurist and Islamic scholar in the 13<sup>th</sup> century Hijri and his most valuable work in this regard is his 32 papers. He discussed in the light of Quran and Sunnah varius points and principles regarding blasphemy of prophet (PBUH) in the 15<sup>th</sup> paper. This research article will highlight Ibne Abidin opinion about Muslim blasphemer, his point of wieve on the blasphemer punishment and the main cause of this penalty. The research will further alaborate and analyse the opinion of Ibne Abidin on the repentence of muslim blasphmere and his arguments keeping in wieve the work of authentic scholars on the above mentioned topics.</em></strong></p> Abdur Rab , Dr. Rab Nawaz Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 16:21:34 +0000 The status of Haqiqah in the light of Sunnah <p><strong><em>Aqiqah, an Islamic terminology, is defined as the animal that is slaughtered on the occasion of child birth. For the child there should be aqiqah, on behalf of the child make sacrifice and remove the hair. The preferable method for Aqiqah is that it should be performed on the seventh day if not then the 14th or 21st and so on. Some scholars have said that this can be carried on till the child has become mature and say Aqiqah can be performed then. However after this period performing Aqiqah is irrelevant. Some scholars given the Fatwa that Aqiqah is valid till the day of one’s death. If someone after becoming an adult performs his own Aqiqah, according to some scholars it is not valid but according to some scholars it’s permissible as it is also understood form Fadhul Bari</em></strong><strong><em>.</em></strong> <strong><em>The performance of Aqiqah is highly encouraged. It is to be performed by the parents or the guardians of the child. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his companions used to perform Aqiqah when they were bestowed with a newborn. There are many benefits in the performance of Aqiqah. One is the announcing the birth of the baby. Being bestowed a child is a great blessing from the Creator. Another purpose is inviting family members, neighbors, and friends to celebrate the blessed occasion. The poor should be included in the celebration by offering them food and meat served on this occasion. This paper discusses those issues related to aqiqah which are disputable among the respected Faqaha. These include the conditions for aqiqah, the masnoon day for aqiqah, discussion on the difference of number while sacrificing for a boy or a girl and the meaning of the statement that a child is a mortgage in lieu of aqiqah. Aqiqah is considered obligatory by some and an optional sunnah by some. Some call it recommended while yet others think it is makroh or a biddah. This article analyzes the arguments of these varied stances and sheds light on the reluctance of the Ummah to practice aqiqah. Moreover, researched- backed analysis of the status of Tahneek and Tasmiyah in Shariah has been presented in this article.</em></strong></p> Dr. Zahida Perveen , Dr Aijaz Ali Khoso, Dr. Abdur Rehman Kaloi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 16:17:18 +0000 Religious review of Human Organs marketing, And donating status <p><strong><em>This paper reviews some standpoints, deep research material and learning keys about organs transplantation, their donation and their economic status in light of Islamic teachings according to Quran, Sunnah, and fiqh(Mazahib e Arba). As we know that Organs transplantation in not a 20th&nbsp;century novelty. Indeed, it was known in one form or another even in prehistoric times. Ancient Hindu surgeons described methods for repai­ring defects of the nose and ears using auto grafts from the neighboring skin, a technique that remains to the present day. Susruta Sanhita, an old Indian medical document written in 700 BC, described the procedure later emulated by the Italian Tagliacozzi in the 16th&nbsp;century, and by British surgeons working in India in the 17th&nbsp;and 18th&nbsp;centuries, Now we also have to learn that if organs transplantation is a method that save humans life then on another hand it may open a wide gateway towards the human kidnapping and their killing crimes,&nbsp; just for earning some money which strongly effect human morals and its society, so that’s why Islam doesn’t support organ transplantation and their donation in &nbsp;each and every case except in some rare conditions which are mentioned in this article.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></strong></p> Haris Ullah , Dr. Hafiz Zafar Hussain Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 16:13:26 +0000 Balakot resurgence of conflict and religious, scholarly analysis <p><strong><em>Allah initiates the establishment of attainment and achievement, so beginning of one and the same code decreed for mankind is Allah in his rulings, or else its always failure. Simultaneously, it is decreed that they also code everything, even commands and forbidden things and relays it to humans through prophecy, Allah does not speak to everyone directly. So the beginning of prophecy series was done by Hazrat Adam (A.S) and end of the destiny was done by Hazrat Muhammad </em></strong><strong><em>ﷺ</em></strong><strong><em>. During </em></strong><strong><em>Sixty three years of his life in peace He took the process to highest reaching stars, and testimony of the companions of the Prophet's legacy at Hija-tul-wada is a proof. Responsibility for the mission was inherited by scholars who comprehensively handled it in every time and place.&nbsp; Syed Ahmed Shaheed was a renowned member of the same party. His&nbsp; great achievement is that the religion of Muhammad and his followers renewed Sunni embraces it while the first stages, has led to emigration and jihad, that's your secret of success in the eyes of Muslims lies in the same.</em></strong> <strong><em>To achieve this goal, He selected great northwest, NWFP as center of militant activity. Thanks to Allah Almighty whose support and help led to successive victories and made practical implementation of the system possible.</em></strong><strong><em> R</em></strong><strong><em>evivalist movement that was near to illuminates the whole country, but people personal interests, greed and love for wealth and splendor began to pursue</em></strong> <strong><em>than the movement turned towards the Valley of Hazara and the final battle was fought here in Balakot too and he received martyrdom. Death of the martyr is the life of nation. Manifestation of the countless Islamic revivalist movement in the sub region which exist today did not deny anyone.</em></strong></p> Dr. Iram Sultana , Kalsoom BiBi , Dost Muhammad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Economic Professions of Women During the era of the Prophet hood <p><strong><em>Islam is a rational religion. It puts its instructions to its followers to secure their worldly as well as eternal life. Islamic orders regarding socio-economic and family life are basically based upon the construction of such a society which not only have a successful social and economic status, rather a strong, peaceful and value based family life as well. Islam balances this social set-up by putting the financial responsibility solely on male, and domestic on female. But, this principle is much flexible as per need and situation. If, needed, Islam not only allows women to participate in economic activities, rather properly determines their rights and creates ease for her in this regard.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Women have been participating in economic activities during the golden era of the Prophet (SAW).There are many examples and various fields in which women has performed her economic contribution. This paper will highlight some of the..</em></strong></p> Dr. Sajeela Kausar , Shameem Akhtar Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 15:55:25 +0000 Methodology of Qur’anic Interpretation in Faiḍ al-bārī by Anwar Shah Kashmīrī: A Research Study <p class="abstract" style="margin-left: 67.5pt;">Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri, is one of the famous writer and great scholar of subcontinent. He wrote many books in Islamic Studies and Literature. One of his well-known book Fai<span style="font-family: 'Cambria',serif;">ḍ al-bārī, which is the interpretation of Ṣaḥīḥ al-bukhārī. It is more significant than his other books which has </span>many features &amp; characteristics, which we are presenting in this research are more valuable and much better then all. He interprets the a<span style="font-family: 'Cambria',serif;">ḥ</span>ādīth and Qur’anic verses as well as in brilliant style and realistic approach which made this book more reliable for scholars. In his book he secured a huge attention by scholars of subcontinent because his explanation has many qualities and features i.e. accuracy of meaning, exact meaning of Arabic word, meaning of silent word from text, idiomatic translation, sequence of meaning etc. the said book also has many characteristics and features which highlights it among many other interpretations of ahadith as well as among some interpretations aslo. In this paper, we’ve presented a research on the methodology of his great interpretations along with their features and qualities.</p> Muhammad Abdul Razzaq, Prof. Dr. Muhammad Hammad Lakhvi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Witnesses of poetry in two exegesis "Attibyan " and "qurtubi" <p><strong><em>Poetry had a significance role in the Arab traditions that they used to give grave importance to poets as compared to speakers and leaders. Arabs had considered the poets as the defenders of their tribes and casts. Furthermore, it was a common praxis in Arabic tradition to celebrate the birth anniversaries of their prominent poets with dignity as the people of other tribes also used to pay commendations and aspirations on that occasions.&nbsp; The quotation of the well-known and specialist of Quranic sciences , Ibne Abbas , shows the emerging strength as he said , Arabic poetry may be helpful and useful to absorb and elucidate the meanings of the Quranic words. whith reference to this importance, many interpreters of the Qur'an seek&nbsp; help from arabic poetry to exegete the verses of the Holy Quran. Abū Ja'far Muḥammad Ibn Ḥasan Tūsī “995- 1067 AD” in his exegesis "Al-Tibbyan Fi Tasir al Quran " and " Imam Abu Abdullah Al-Qurtubi " , 1214 -1273 AD , in his exegesis "Jami’li-Ahkam" and "Al-Jami' li Ahkam al-Qur'an ", used many verses of Arabic poetry to interpret the verses of the Holy in this reference, we will discuss in this article ;</em></strong></p> <ol> <li><strong><em>poetry and its importance</em></strong></li> <li><strong><em>promotion of " Istishhad "</em></strong></li> <li><strong><em>models of istishhad with Arabic poetry in two exegesis</em></strong></li> </ol> Ghulam Muhammad , Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Badshah Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ethical and moral virtues in the poetry of Pre- Islamic era- (The study of Zuhair bin abi Salma) <p><strong><em>The pre- Islamic era is a term which is used in Arabic poetry as well as in Islamic history among the literati and historians. It is defined as the period of time before the rising and spreading of Islam in the desert of Arab. It is also called Ignorance era, because they were not only illiterate from Islamic laws and rules but also void souls from virtuous values. They buried their daughters alive, made erroneous notations and quarreled for centuries, eulogized bloodshed and wars etc.&nbsp;</em></strong><strong><em> Among them bore a great poet Zuhair bin abi Salma (520- 611) and tried to change their lives by his noble poetry. He praised Hiram bin Sanan, the popular person &nbsp; and leader of his tribes by his famous eulogy for his good moral activates. He played a tremendous role for the pace of his tribe. </em></strong><strong><em>This article is denoted the ethical and moral virtues in the poetry of Zuhair bin abi Salma in the pre- Islamic era. It is also describes the effort of Zuhair for the peace and morality of his tribe.</em></strong></p> Muhammad Qasim Junaidi , Irshad Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Principles of Legal Opinion Concerning Islamic Law in Hanfi School of Thought <p><em>There are rules for everything and same goes for Fatwa where it is mandatory for every Mufti to learn the specified rules and abide by them, if he does not follow the prescribed rules his Fatwa will be considered void. One of the most common misconceptions amongst Muslims is that Shariah is the same for all the Muslims and it includes all the issues; however, in reality the texts of Shariah are not confined and it does not cover all the issues and circumstances that evolve with time, vary from place to place, and customs as well. This is the core for the need of Fatwa, for verily if Fatwa did not exist people would have face a lot of hardships regarding numerous issues. Allah Almighty does not not impose any hardship on human being in the religion. Hence, Fatwa is required for every age and era, it is necessary for every Mufti to be cautious about it because people follow the Islamic teaching according to Fatwa, and its authenticity depends upon the correctness of Fatwa and Mufti, and same goes for its incorrectness as well. In every school of thought there are specified rules and regulations for Fatwa and they abide by them. Therefore, it is obligatory for a Mufti to learn their rules and try to the best of his knowledge to avoid mistakes. The principles of Fatwa are very important, one of these principles states: Fatwa will be on preferred statement, but at the time of need. To issue a Fatwa, it is essential to have read its fundamental books. The paper discuss fatwa according to Hanafi’s school of thoughts and their specified principles which are being followed.</em></p> Khisro Ul Mulk Sadiqi , Ihsan Ullah Chishti Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Rhetorical interpreting from singular to plural & from plural to singular in Quran kareem <p><strong><em>The most eloquent book of Allah is the Holy Quran is. The Quranic Scholars have served its eloquent points, since its very beginning, because of their insist interpretation of and love with the Quranic language Arabic. So Quran is in the focus and epicenter of many rhetorical discourses discussed by the rhetoricians, and "iltifat" is one of these. The word "iltifat" means interpreting from one perspective or style or focus of meaning to another perspective or style or focus of meaning i.e. from first person to second or third person, or vice versa, similarly, from plural to singular, or vice versa, and from past to future, or vice versa, and from feminine to masculine or vice versa etc. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>By an adequate understanding of Topic:"iltifat inter singular and plural, and its eloquent points in the Holy Quran ", we can easily infer that the Holy Quran is very eloquent and the most rhetorical book in all over the Arabic books. In this research paper the researcher has given eleven examples for&nbsp; this kind of “iltifat” from the Holy Quran, and proved that Quran is the very eloquent statements, through this rhetorical discourse "iltifat from singular to plural or vice versa ".</em></strong></p> Saltanat Khan , Dr. Dost Muhammad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Rhetorical Peculiarities in the chapter of Zakat of Al-Sihah-al-Sithah <p><strong><em>Rhetoric and Eloquence is the “Miracle of speech” The art of Rhetoric is aimed at the strong persuation and attractive oration.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Like other realms, Religion needs to have prophetic Eloquence to persuade the receivers. The last Holy Prophet Hazrath Muhammad (SAW) had the sense of rhetorical speaking and often used to convince via eloquail strategies. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>His Ahadees are regarded as landmarks so far artistic and eloquent speech is concerned.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>In this research Article, the researcher has tried to mark out some rhetorical aspects of his impressive oration especially with in the “kitabul Zakat” in al Sihah-al-Sithah. Keeping in view the Arabic classic and modern rhetoric embellishments, various utterances of Rasoolullah (SAW) are scrutinized rhetorically to show its eloquail peculiarity for benefit of Readers, listeners and researchers.</em></strong></p> Hafiz Shafi Ullah , Syed Mubarak Shah Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The plight of asylum in contemporary Levantine literature (An analytical study) <p>The forced ordeal of asylum in the current era has been written on a large number of our Arab brothers belonging to a number of Arab countries on which the merchants of war imposed bloody battles and developing tragedies: they were displaced and driven from their homes, so they were forced to migrate out of their country via land and sea, looking for asylum.</p> <p>&nbsp;The safe haven in a number of eastern and western countries adjacent to or far from the borders of their countries. A large number of media outlets and human pens in many languages ​​confronted to record this human ordeal, and Arabic literature had a lion's share in that. Also, it did not forget to portray this human ordeal with the poetic and prose lens of the writer, highlighting the current pain and future hopes in it, and by this it analyzes this tragic issue with the writer's eye, trying to present it with a set of possible solutions in his keen eyes and his sharp vision. This article attempts to shed light on this ordeal in the Levantine literature in general and the Syrian in particular, in a preface that deals with the issue of Palestinian asylum in poetry, and two chapters, one of which is devoted to talking about this ordeal in Shami poetry, and the other is devoted to talking about this ordeal in contemporary Levantine prose. Finally, a conclusion that includes the most important results of this study.</p> Dr. Abdul Mujeeb Bassam, Dr. Sher Ali Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Sat, 05 Sep 2020 03:53:07 +0000 The impact of Non-linguistic elements on the translation process (Literary translation from Arabic to Urdu) <p><em>Translation is the process of converting written or audible text from the source language to the target text in another language. Translation is one of the best means of transmitting civilization, culture, thought, scientific and literary achievements. Literary translation is one of the most important types of translation; it is the transmutation of literary texts from one language to another language. Each literary text is characterized by expressive and aesthetic images and creative structures for conveying the meaning from one language to another, so it cannot be transferred literally, otherwise the meaning will be spoiled.</em></p> <p><em>In determination of the meanings, non-linguistic elements have a significant influence, but it is part of the speech’s meaning,&nbsp; as the personality of the speaker and the recipient, and the relationship between them, the intention of the text, the linguistic performance and the surrounding of the circumstances. All these elements affect the understanding of the text.</em></p> <p><em>This research aims to highlight the impact of these non-linguistic elements on the translation process, especially in literary translation.</em> <em>The topic is addressed in this research with a descriptive approach that is based on describing non-linguistic elements and their effect on the translation process, and an analytical approach that selects some models from Arabic literary texts in order to&nbsp; highlighting the importance of non-linguistic elements in transferring meaning from Arabic to Urdu.</em></p> Dr. Samia Nazish, Shakeel Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Sat, 05 Sep 2020 03:56:53 +0000 A Comparative Study of Asceticism in the Poetry of Abul- Athahiya and Abdul Rehman Baba Peshawari <p><strong><em>Ascetic means a person not allowing himself for physical pleasure, especially for religious reasons, related to a simple life and a strict way of living. </em></strong><strong><em>Abul Atahiya was a famous poet born in kofa, the city of Iraq, during Abbasid dynasty. In youth much of his poetry verse was romantic and about wine but latter a drastic change occurs in his poetry and much of his poetry was concerned with asceticism and Islamic mysticism and constantly imitated to spirituality and Sufism. </em></strong><strong><em>Rehmān Bābā&nbsp;was born in the famed city Peshawar</em></strong><strong><em>, khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. He was renowned Sufi poet of Pashtu literature. Rehman Baba did oath of allegiance (By`aht) on the hand of Haji Bahadur Baba of Kohat as well as learned mysticism from him. His poetry expresses a peaceful Islamic mystical and ascetical perspectives, in which he plainly advised and sermon to peoples regarding Islamic interpretations. </em></strong><strong><em>The main theme of this article was to critically analyze the poetry of Abul Atahiya and Rehman Baba pertaining </em></strong><strong><em>asceticism and Islamic mysticism</em></strong><strong><em>. The study further explored the verses of both poets in their integrity on Sufism on thoughts.</em></strong></p> Syed Sayyar Ali Shah, Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Qasim Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Mon, 19 Oct 2020 08:18:48 +0000 Usage of symbols in the poetry of Fadwa Toqan(Analytical Study) <p>The article entitled:" Usage of symbols in the poetry of Fadwa Toqan (Analytical Study)“aimed to illustrate the most important symbols which the poetess used in her Arabic poetry for Palestinian people. She tried her best to convey the message of Palestinian to all over the world in her very impressive way.&nbsp; Fadwa Toqan is one of the Arab contemporary literary figures who contributed towards contemporary Arabic literature and occupied her position through hard working and developing her poetic experience in Modern Arabic poetry. She succeeded in her mission, regardless the limitations &amp; habits of her family. She belonged to a noble family. She wrote in Arabic poetry &amp; prose and awarded many national, international prizes. She was born in 1917and died in 2003.</p> <p>&nbsp;Fadwa Tokan used symbols to express what was there in her mind, feelings and its reactions with self living in her society. She described symbols in her poetry to enable the people of her nation for freedom .She motivated her nation through symlobs described in her poetry and prose. The symbols made it possible for us to understand contents of her poetry and to benefit from her experience. The poetess used natural items a lot in a semantic symbolic way. The poetess succeeded to make the details of natural elements and life sources of inspiration. This article opens the way for more research and mentions some issues that need more elaboration and investigation such as the study of symbolism in the prose of Fadwa Toqan (i.e. her biography) as well as the study of symbol in poetry of the Palestinian and Arab poets since such studies enrich the Arabic literature and criticism. She addressed her nation through symbolic words,these symbolic words have been described in this article.</p> Muhammad Bilal khan, Dr. Muhammad Saleem Ismail Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Mon, 19 Oct 2020 08:19:46 +0000 An Examination of Quality of Education in Pakistan with respect to Personality Development of a Child in Islamic Perspective <p><em>The phase of primary level education is the most important phase throughout the educational process. The purpose of this research paper was to critically analyze the quality of education in Pakistan at primary level. The method used for the research was qualitative and descriptive. For clear understanding of underlying theme the article was divided into three sections: the first section gave the brief introduction to importance of primary education and educational structure in Pakistan, the second discussed the education in Islamic context, and the third dealt with the reshaping of educational structure with respect to quality education. The review of literature revealed that the quality of education in Pakistan was far from its objectives, personality development of children, grooming of learners, as well as critical and creative thinking. The study also found that the education we gave to our children was not up to the mark as it was not fulfilling the requirements of quality education that’s why the generation, we educated was unfaithful, disloyal, immoral and highly corrupted. Moreover, Islam had given emphasize on child development from all aspects; physical, intellectual, moral, spiritual, social and economic. In this context, the author recommends to follow the infrastructure of Islamic education to develop the child’s personality in comprehensive way. For this purpose, objectives of education, pedagogy, curriculum, and assessment system must be revised in the light of Islamic teachings.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Zulqarnain , Dr.Hafiz Rao Farhan Ali , Dr.Khan Faqeer Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Offence of Abetment under the Islamic Criminal law <p><em>A person may be said to commit a crime, although, he does not directly be a part of it. To encourage, order, assist another person for the commission of a crime is considered an offence as the act or omission of principal offender is considered. To encourage, order, assist another person for the commission of a crime in legal terminology is called Abetment. A</em><em>betment in criminal law specifies distinguish between an abettor and the principal offender. Under the Pakistan Penal Code, in many cases an abettor is not awarded the same punishment as awarded to the principal offender. There are few cases in which the abettor is awarded the same Punishment as awarded to the principal offender. Under&nbsp; Islamic Criminal law majority of Jurists are on the opinion that Hudood punishments will be awarded only in cases where Hudood offences are committed by Participant by Action (Arabic: الاشتراك بالمباشر) in case where these are committed by Participant by abetment (Arabic: الاشتراك بالتسبب), Hudood punishments shall not be awarded to them rather Tazir Punishment may be awarded to them. </em><em>Thus, Participation in crime is either directly or indirectly.</em><em> Participation by action <strong>(</strong>الاشتراك بالمباشر) and Participation by abetment <strong>(</strong>الاشتراك بالتسبب). Ingredients of Participation by abetment are Consensus (الاتفاق), Instigation:</em><em>(التحريض</em><em>&nbsp; and </em><em>An </em><em>Assistance (الاعانة). Causes for the commission of abetment are Causeof Shariat(السبب الشرعي), Causeof usages forabetment (السبب العرفي) and Cause of </em><em>common sense </em><em>forabetment (السبب الحسي). Further division of Participation by action and participation by abetment:&nbsp; It is further divided into two forms:Tawafuqتوافق)) and Tamalo (تمالؤ). In this reaserach article </em><em>The Offence of Abetment under the Islamic Criminal law is discussed in detail.</em></p> Kamran Sarwar , Dr. Muhammad Alam Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of Academic Performance of Teachers Trained Under Formal And Non-Formal Systems of Teacher Education At Secondary Level In Punjab <p><em>The study was designed to compare academic performance of trained teachers under formal and no-formal systems of teacher education at secondary level in Punjab. The study was based on the objectives: (i) to compare the professional skills of the teachers through academic achievement of students and (ii) to check the academic performance of the teachers trained in both systems. Secondary schools of 04 districts were selected. The major findings included that the student’s academic achievement taught by the teachers trained through non-formal system was better than the teachers trained through formal system. There was significant difference between the professional skills of teachers trained through formal and non-formal system. The students’ academic achievement taught by the teachers trained through non-formal system was better than the teachers trained through formal system. It was concluded that there was no significant difference between the performance of teachers trained through formal and non-formal system and there was significant difference between the students’ academic achievements of teachers trained through formal and non-formal system. The study recommended that studies be carried out to identify training needs of teachers and areas where they need further orientation to strengthen weak areas.</em></p> Ms. Naveed Gulzar, Prof. Dr. M. Zafer Iqbal Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Sat, 05 Sep 2020 03:45:23 +0000 Relationship of Teachers’ Job Satisfaction with Class Rooms Discipline and Students Academic Achievement At Secondary School Level In Punjab <p><em>The first and foremost aim of this research paper is to get information relating the relationship of teacher’s job satisfaction with classroom discipline and students’ academic achievement at secondary school level in Punjab. The study was based on the objectives: to discover the relationship between job satisfactions of teachers who teach at secondary level with their classroom discipline and (ii) to explore the effects of job satisfaction on their students’ academic achievements. Sample consisted of 550 teachers, 674802 students and 110 head teachers out of 110 secondary schools in 04 districts based on rural, urban, north, southern and central. A questionnaire for teachers’ job satisfaction, an observational sheet for teachers’, classroom discipline and an interview schedule for head teacher regarding teachers’ classroom discipline and job satisfaction of teachers were developed. The data was analyzed through the utilization of mean score, percentage, standard deviation, t-value and correlation co-efficient. Major findings emerged were significant co-relation between job satisfaction of all teachers and their students’ academic achievement; significant co-relation between job satisfaction of all teachers and classroom discipline of teacher in Punjab.</em></p> Ms. Naila Gulzar, Dr. M. Zafer Iqbal Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Sat, 05 Sep 2020 04:00:49 +0000 The Finality of Prophethood in the light of Qur'an and Hadith <p><em>It is clear that notwithstanding the distinctions in subtleties all Prophets have conveyed a similar message and had a place with the equivalent ideological school. The standards and lessons of this school were disclosed to human culture step by step in relation to its advancement till the humankind arrived at the phase when the whole lessons in a far reaching structure were introduced. Now Prophethood reached a conclusion. The Prophet, Muhammad b. Abdullah (Peace be on him and his offspring) was the individual through whom the total belief system was passed on, and the Holy Qur'an was the last heavenly Book. Presently let us see why in the past the Prophethood was restored now and again thus numerous Prophets were brought up in progression, however the greater part of them were not given another and autonomous code of law and were sent to proclaim at that point existing code? For what reason did this system reach a conclusion with the last Prophet since whose time no Prophet, neither a law-giving one nor a proclaiming one has come, nor will at any point come? Here in this paper, all these things are discussed in the light of Quran and Ahadith. </em></p> Ms. Musarat Shaukat, Dr Sajila Kousar Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Sat, 05 Sep 2020 04:08:18 +0000 ORIENTALISM AND THE DEPICTION OF MUSLIMS: A TALE OF TWO CITIES IN ELPHINSTONE’S “KINGDOM OF CAUBUL” <p>Mountstuart Elphinstone (1779-1859) was the first British Envoy to the Kingdom of Kabul in 1808–1809. He was deputed by the East India Company to carve an alliance with Afghanistan to counter possible French and Russian military march against British India which was the jewel of the British Empire. With other members of the mission, Elphinstone went as far as Peshawar where he spent four months and collected primary and secondary data on the human and natural geography, economics, politics, history and inhabitants of Peshawar and Kabul valleys in early 19<sup>th</sup> century in his travelogue, kingdom of Caubul. That was the era of the tournament of shadows between British and Russian Empires for political ascendancy in South and Central Asian region. In that game of high stakes Tsarist Russia occupied Central Asia and British India expanded its western borders to the Durand Line. The first and second Anglo-Afghan wars were launched by the British Raj to expand its influence to Afghanistan. By 1820s the British conceptualized Afghanistan as the highway of conquests. Elphinstone reflections on Pakhtun way of life and his comments on the government and society of the region mirror his perception and approach. The paper is an attempt to objectively analyze Elphinstone`s views in the Kingdom of Caubul on the region and its inhabitants in the context of Edwards Said`s Orientalism.</p> Prof. Dr. Zahid Anwar, waqar Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Sat, 05 Sep 2020 04:12:17 +0000 An Analytical Study of Capitalism and its Impact on the Political Situation of the Muslim World <p><strong><em>The Islamic world for 13th centuries was an ummah with its own government and leadership which known in history as the Caliphate Rashda, the Umayyads, the Abbasids, or the Ottomans. This political leadership considered it its duty to maintain the Khilafah system. Eventually, through internal and external conspiracies, this historic fortress was demolished and the unity of the ummah was shattered. The creation of the state of Israel was a great oppression of the capitalist countries and their continued construction and support of this state is a great injustice. At present, the genocide of Muslims in the Islamic countries of Iraq, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Bosnia, Chechnya and Myanmar is a link in the same chain. Despite the fact that the Islamic world has abundant natural resources, it is worth noting that it is one of the most backward countries. One of the factors behind all these problems is to pursuit of financial gain, which is now called capitalism.</em></strong></p> Muhammad Sadiq, Dr. Abdul Khaliq Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Civilization and Culture Mon, 19 Oct 2020 08:17:37 +0000